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MLA Style Guide, 7th Edition: What to Include

This is a guide for MLA Style. It is based on the Modern Language Association of America's MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition.

Key Points

Never include a document in a reference list that you have not seen.

Square brackets are used to identify material that is not found in a document, but that has been added by you.

Components of References

MLA style is flexible about the inclusion of some information and the ordering of the elements. Here are the basic components that you will need to cite your sources. Remember to be consistent in your formatting.

Books Part of a book or anthology            Articles                                                   Websites
Author(s) and/or editor(s) Author of essay or chapter Author(s)

Author(s) and/or editor(s)  

Book title 

"Title of essay or chapter"       "Article title" "Article title"
Edition (if given) Book title    Title of Publication Title of the website or book

Volume (if given)

Book editors or compilers    Volume.Issue number Version numbers
Place of publication Place of publication Date of publication (abbreviate months) Date of publication
Publisher (shortened name) Publisher (shortened name) Edition for newspapers only Publisher (shortened name)
Date of publication Date of publication Inclusive page numbers Inclusive page numbers
Medium Inclusive page numbers of cited work    Medium of publication Medium of publication
  Medium   Date you accessed the material (day abbreviated month year)
      <URL> (optional)