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MLA Style Guide, 7th Edition: Medium

This is a guide for MLA Style. It is based on the Modern Language Association of America's MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition.

Medium of Publication (Works Cited)

You must include the "medium" of publication for all MLA citations. The most commonly used mediums are 'Print' and 'Web', but there are many others. Refer to the complete list of MLA citation examples for placement. Here are a few examples:   


MacDonald, Richard G. Biochemistry. New York: McGraw, 2007. Print. (book)


Potter, Michelle. "Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Life." n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2011. (Website)


"The Chemistry of Air Pollution." Magill's Survey of Science. 1998 ed. Pasadena: Salem, 1988. CD-ROM. (CD-ROM)

Microsoft Word file

Cortez, Juan. "Border Crossing in Chicano Narrative." 2007. Microsoft Word file. (Word document on your computer)


Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. N.p.: Superior Formatting, 2010. Digital file. (eBook)


Smith, Diane. "Re: Hurston." Message to David S. Nevins. 21 Aug. 2009. E-mail. (email to a colleague)