Never include a document in a reference list that you have not seen.
Reference citations for electronic publications. When in doubt, locate all of the information needed to cite an electronic publication as if it were a print document. Then, add the DOI or URL, at the very least this includes the URL. If an item is no longer available, do not include it in your reference list (this includes items that have been removed from the Internet or items that cannot be found by the reader due to unpublished lectures, personal communications, or interviews 9.37).
Square brackets are used to identify material that is not found in a document, but that has been added by you.
Title is required for all references.
References for books and articles require specific components. The sequencing of these components is prescribed by APA. Consistent ordering is important to avoid confusion and to help the reader find information.
|Books||Journal Articles||Newspaper Articles||Websites|
|Date (year)||Date (year, month)||Date (year, month day)||Date (year, use n.d. if none)|
|Chapter title (optional)||Article title||Article title||Website title|
|Editor(s) (if given)||Title of Journal||Title of Newspaper||DOI or URL (always necessary)|
|Book title||Volume||Pagination (use p. or pp.)|
|Edition (if given)||Issue (if given)||DOI or URL (when necessary)|
|Volume (if given)||Pagination|
|Pagination (when citing a chapter)||DOI or URL (when necessary)|
|DOI or URL (when necessary)|