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APA 7th Edition Style Guide: About In-text Citations

How to set-up and cite your sources using APA 7th edition format.

Types of In-Text Citations

In-text (parenthetical citations) using the name-year system usually contain the author's last name and publication year of the reference.

If authorship is uncertain, use the first word or first few words of the title and the year (8.14). If the title is italicized in the reference list, italicize it in the in-text citation as well. If the title is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation. 

Each in-text citation should correspond to a citation in the list of references at the end of the paper.

How to Cite References in Your Text

In the name-year system, in-text references contain the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication of the document. Enclose the name and year in parentheses. Leave a space between name and year. Place a comma after the author's name. In-text citations can be parenthetical or narrative, see below.

Example:

The most recent report on the use of experiments shows a correlation between results and participants (Brown, 2006).

OR

Brown's (2006) recent report on the use of experiments shows a correlation between results and participants.

Exceptions to this rule occur when no definitive author or publication date is present. This often occurs when citing websites. When no date is available use the abbreviation n.d. for no date. When no author is available you will use a corporation name, an editor, or a title of the webpage/website/chapter/encyclopedia entry. See in-text examples for a full explanation.

Page number(s) can be included to be more precise in your citations. When using a direct quote, page numbers are necessary.

Example:

Ness, George, Turner, & Bolgatz (2010) describe social justice "as the process of confronting and dismantling oppressive structures and systems, the process of addressing inequalities of all kinds, and the process of developing recognition of and respect for the values and identities of all cultural groups" (pp. 89-90).

OR

The authors describe social justice "as the process of confronting and dismantling oppressive structures and systems, the process of addressing inequalities of all kinds, and the process of developing recognition of and respect for the values and identities of all cultural groups" (Ness, George, Turner, & Bolgatz, 2010, pp. 89-90).

When no page numbers are available use a paragraph number, section title, timestamp (for audiovisual materials), or use the chapter/verse/act/line/or canto instead. Use the abbreviation para. before a paragraph number. See in-text examples for a full explanation.

In this Guide

In-Text Examples