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APA 7th Edition Style Guide: Bracketed Descriptions

How to set-up and cite your sources using APA 7th edition format.

Bracketed Descriptions

Bracketed Descriptions

Use brackets to describe information not normally found in academic literature and non-text based items (i.e. video, art, etc.) to help the reader locate the material. Place the description in square brackets [] after the title, capitalize the first word only, and end with a period.

Examples of Bracketed Descriptions
[Letter to the editor].
[Special issue].
[Computer software].
[Data set].
[Motion picture].
[Lecture notes].
[Supplemental material].


Mallory, G. A. (2010, November/December). Professional nursing societies and evidence-based practice: Strategies to cross the quality chasm [Special issue]. Nursing Outlook, 58(6), 279-286. 

Helman, G. (Producer), & Jones, D. (Director). (2002). 84 charing cross road [Motion picture]. United States: Columbia Pictures. 

JDonnelly. (2008). IRSC fire academy class 118 [Video]. YouTube.