Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

CSE Style Guide: Websites

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) style guide is designed for the natural and physical sciences. IRSC students writing in these disciplines can use this guide.


Begin a citation to Internet material by first locating all of the information needed to cite it as if it were a print document. Most difficulties arise when citing something that is not a book or article.

Here are some general rules for citing portions of websites (webpages).

If the portion being referenced has no author other than the author of the website itself :

  • Begin the reference by citing the homepage.
  • Give the title of the portion followed by a semicolon and space.
  • Provide the dates of the portion (date of publication) followed by space and date of citation within square brackets.
  • End date with semicolon and space followed by the extent and a period.
  • The note follows with URL and DOI or other information. 

If an Internet document displays neither page numbers nor document numbers, the extent or length should be included (

Place the medium designator, [Internet], after the title of the book, the title of the journal, magazine or newspaper, or the title of the website.

Material Type           In-text Citation              End Reference                                                        

(Biology . . .c2004)

The Biology Project [Internet]. c2001-2004. University of Arizona. [cited 2011 Feb 9]. Available from: 
The website was revised in 2004.           
Web page (authored) (Trafton 2011)
Trafton A. 2011 Mar 23. In vivo systems biology: using computer models, systems biologists can predict complicated behavior of cells in living animals. MIT News [Internet] [cited 2011 Mar 23]. Available from:

Web page (no author)

(Human . . . 2006)

Human parainfluenza viruses [Internet]. 2006. Atlanta (GA): National Center for Immunication and Respiratory Diseases;[reviewed 2006 Jun 6; cited 2011 Mar 23]. Available from:

Online book (freely available) (King 1981)

King JC. 1981. The biology of race [Internet]. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press; [cited 2010 Dec 8]. Available from:

Online journal article (freely available) (Quinn et al. 2010)

Quinn CF, Freeman JL, Reynolds RJB, Cappa JJ, Sirine TS. 2010. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores. BMC Ecol [Internet] [cited 2011 Feb 2];10(19):[11 p.]. Available from: doi:10.1186/1472-6785-10-19 

(Philippi et al. 1998)

Philippi TE, Dixon PM, Taylor BE. 1998. Detecting trends in species composition. Ecol Appl [Internet] [cited 2002 Feb 12]; 8(2): 300-308. Available from:

Online newspaper article  (freely available) (Vanderhoof 2011)

Vanderhoof N. 2011 Feb 9. INEOS new planet bioenergy center breaks ground in Indian River County. TC Palm (Stuart, FL). [Internet] [cited 9 Feb 2011]. Available from:

Online video (Thompson 2013)

Thompson, G. 2013 Sep 27. 5 ways to start a fire, using water [Internet].; [cited 2013 Oct 10]. Available from: