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CSE Style Guide: Websites

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) style guide is designed for the natural and physical sciences. IRSC students writing in these disciplines can use this guide.


Begin a citation to Internet material by first locating all of the information needed to cite it as if it were a print document. Most difficulties arise when citing something that is not a book or article.

Here are some general rules for citing portions of websites (webpages).

If the portion being referenced has no author other than the author of the website itself :

  • Begin the reference by citing the homepage.
  • Give the title of the portion followed by a semicolon and space.
  • Provide the dates of the portion (date of publication) followed by space and date of citation within square brackets.
  • End date with semicolon and space followed by the extent and a period.
  • The note follows with URL and DOI or other information. 

If an Internet document displays neither page numbers nor document numbers, the extent or length should be included (

Place the medium designator, [Internet], after the title of the book, the title of the journal, magazine or newspaper, or the title of the website.

Material Type           In-text Citation              End Reference                                                        

(Biology . . .c2004)

The Biology Project [Internet]. c2001-2004. University of Arizona. [cited 2011 Feb 9]. Available from: 
The website was revised in 2004.           
Web page (authored) (Trafton 2011)
Trafton A. 2011 Mar 23. In vivo systems biology: using computer models, systems biologists can predict complicated behavior of cells in living animals. MIT News [Internet] [cited 2011 Mar 23]. Available from:

Web page (no author)

(Human . . . 2006)

Human parainfluenza viruses [Internet]. 2006. Atlanta (GA): National Center for Immunication and Respiratory Diseases;[reviewed 2006 Jun 6; cited 2011 Mar 23]. Available from:

Online book (freely available) (King 1981)

King JC. 1981. The biology of race [Internet]. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press; [cited 2010 Dec 8]. Available from:

Online journal article (freely available) (Quinn et al. 2010)

Quinn CF, Freeman JL, Reynolds RJB, Cappa JJ, Sirine TS. 2010. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores. BMC Ecol [Internet] [cited 2011 Feb 2];10(19):[11 p.]. Available from: doi:10.1186/1472-6785-10-19 

(Philippi et al. 1998)

Philippi TE, Dixon PM, Taylor BE. 1998. Detecting trends in species composition. Ecol Appl [Internet] [cited 2002 Feb 12]; 8(2): 300-308. Available from:

Online newspaper article  (freely available) (Vanderhoof 2011)

Vanderhoof N. 2011 Feb 9. INEOS new planet bioenergy center breaks ground in Indian River County. TC Palm (Stuart, FL). [Internet] [cited 9 Feb 2011]. Available from:

Online video (Thompson 2013)

Thompson, G. 2013 Sep 27. 5 ways to start a fire, using water [Internet].; [cited 2013 Oct 10]. Available from: