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Chicago Citation Style Guide: In-text Citations Using Author-Date

Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, rules for formatting citations using the Author/Date and Footnote/Endnote Bibliography styles.

Types of In-Text Citations

  • In-text (parenthetical citations) using the author-date style usually contain the author's name and publication year of the reference and page number.
  • If authorship is uncertain use the title of the source followed by the date (The Chicago Manual of Style 2017, 908).
  • Each in-text citation should correspond to a citation in the list of references at the end of the paper.

How to cite references in your text

In the author-date style, in-text references contain the name of the author(s), the year of publication of the document, and page number if applicable. Enclose the name and year in parenthesis. Leave a space between name and year. No punctuation is necessary.

One author:

In the most recent report, Brown (2006) states the use of . . . 

(Brown 2006, 9)

Two authors:

(Grazer and Fishman 2015, 188)

In their article, Grazer and Fishman (2015, 188) discuss . . .

Three authors:

(Berman, Bauer, and Nold 2011, 7-10)

Four or more authors:

(Williams et al. 2018, 2)