Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
|Personal communication. More informal means of communication that excludes pre-prints or more scholarly information that is awaiting print.
Personal communications (interviews, e-mail correspondence, lectures, etc.) should be used sparingly. When citing personal communications only cite this material in text, do not include personal communication citations in the reference list. They are excluded from the reference list because this is unrecoverable data. Give the name of the speaker and the exact date.
A. M. Raulson (personal communication, January 28, 2007) says...
(T. J. Mavin, personal communication, April 15, 2009).