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Chicago Citation Style Guide: Footnotes and Endnotes

Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, rules for formatting citations using the Author/Date and Footnote/Endnote Bibliography styles.

Footnotes

One author

Footnote

1. Barbara Krasner, The Two-party System in the United States (New York: Greenhaven, 2019), 87-88.

2. Krasner, Two-Party System, 100.

Bibliography

Krasner, Barbara. The Two-party System in the United States. New York: Greenhaven,

2012.

Two authors or three authors

Only the first author's name will be inverted, Last Name, First Name, in the Bibliography entry. The second author's name will be First Name Last Name.

Footnote

1. William F. Ogburn and Lolagene C. Coombs, "American Government and Politics: The Economic Factor in the Roosevelt Elections," The American Political Science Review 34, no. 4 (August 1940): 721.

2. Ogburn and Coombs, "American Government and Politics," 725.

Bibliography

Ogburn, William F., and Lolagene C. Coombs. "American Government and Politics: The Economic Factor in the Roosevelt

Elections." The American Political Science Review 34, no 4. (August 1940): 719-727.

Four to ten authors

First author name followed by et al. in the footnotes only. All authors will be included in the Bibliography entry. 

Footnote

1.Xavier León et al., "Influence of the Persistence of Tobacco and Alcohol Use in the Appearance of Second Neoplasm in Patients with a Head and Neck Cancer. A Case–Control Study," Cancer Causes and Control 20, no. 5 (July 2009): 648.

2. Xavier León et al., "Influence of the Persistence of Tobacco and Alcohol Use," 650.

Bibliography

León, Xavier, María del Prado Venegas, César Orús, Montserrat López, Jacinto García and Miquel Quer. "Influence of

the Persistence of Tobacco and Alcohol Use in the Appearance of Second Neoplasm in Patients with a Head and Neck

Cancer. A Case–Control Study," Cancer Causes and Control 20, no. 5 (July 2009): 645-652.

More than 10 authors

For sources with more than 10 authors include the first 7 authors in the bibliography entry then type et al. after the seventh author's last name. 

Organizations as authors

Footnote

1. World Trade Organization, World Trade Report 2018: The Future of World Trade How Digital Technologies are Transforming Global Commerce (Geneva: WTO Publications, 2018), 183.

2. World Trade Organization, World Trade Report 2018, 96.

Bibliography

World Trade Organization. World Trade Report 2018: The Future of World Trade How Digital Technologies are

Transforming Global Commerce. Geneva: WTO, 2018.

Works without authors

Begin the footnote with the title. 

Footnote

1. "Privacy," Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection (Detroit: Gale, 2018). 

2. "Privacy," Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection.

Bibliography

"Privacy," Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2018. 

http://link.galegroup.com.db12.linccweb.org/apps/doc/PC3010999063/OVIC?u=lincclin_ircc&sid=OVIC&xid=f9a107e7.