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LIS2004: Lesson Seven-APA

Lesson Seven-APA

7C: APA Documentation of Internet Resources

APA Documentation of Internet Resources

The APA citation for a document obtained over the Internet will be similar in format to a comparable print document with some elements added and some omitted. Audio files, video files and graphic images have become increasingly available on the Internet and can be imported into electronic presentations/reports such as PowerPoint. These sites also need to be documented. You should include as many of the following available elements in the order given. For some sites you may only have a title, date of access and URL to cite. The URL is the most critical element.

  1. The author's last name and initials, if available. If not available, start with the website title.
  2. The date of publication, in parentheses, if available. The date should be expressed as either a year, a year and month, or a year, month and day depending on what information is available from the website. More often than not, the date will be the year only. If no date is given, place (n.d.). right after the author's name (or title if there is no author).
  3. The title of the webpage, italicized, or the title of the website, also italicized, if the entire site was used. Note: A webpage is defined as a single page of data within a website. If instead the site comes from a periodical, include the name of the periodical, italicized, followed by a volume number, also italicized.
  4. Pagination information, if available. Journal articles and book chapters will need page numbers.
  5. Web information that includes the retrieval statement. If the document has a Digital Object Identifier (doi), use it and leave out the url. When no doi exists, give the url to the webpage when citing a single page of a website, give the url to the homepage when citing an entire website. Do not end with a period when using a url or doi. This should be expressed as follows:
    1. doi: 10.1080/87568220902794366
    2. Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/
  6. The reference list is double-spaced. Each citation is formatted using a "hanging indent," meaning all lines except the first one are indented from the left margin.

Web Resources

The following examples illustrate how to create APA citations for online resources.

All information in red is meant to offer explanation and should not be included in your own references.

Web Page within a Website

The Kodish Group. (2008). Teeth whitening services. Retrieved from http://www.kodish.com/cosmeticmakeovers-toothwhitening.html

In-text citation examples:

There are three common ways to construct in-text citations.

1) Placing the author and date in parentheses:

Studies are showing that violence in the media is becoming a larger issue for our children than it was for us (American Psychological Association, 2004).

2) Placing the author's name in the sentence and the date in parentheses:

The American Psychological Association stated that studies are showing that violence in the media is becoming a larger issue for our children than it was for us (2004).

3) You can use a direct quote, placing the author's name in the sentence and the date in parentheses. Notice for direct quotes, you must include the exact paragraph number where the information was found:

The American Psychological Association (2004) stated that "violence on television is a crucial issue in America today" (para. 6).

 


Images, Audiovisual and Graphical Resources

The following APA reference is to a typical image that might be used in a PowerPoint presentation or as a visual aid in a speech. The documentation for non-print Web sources must include the format of the source within brackets. Some commonly used formats are:

  • Image
  • Video Blog
  • Artwork
  • Video webcast
  • Podcast

Examples:

Podcast:
Conan, N. (2001, September 11). World trade center attack. Talk of the nation [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/programs/talk-of-the-nation/

Video Blog (i.e. You Tube):
Rifkin, J. (2010, August). Jeremy Rifkin on the "empathic civilization" [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/jeremy_rifkin_on_the_empathic_civilization.html

CD:
The Beatles. (2009). Lucy in the sky with diamonds. On Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band [CD]. New York, NY: EMI.

 

 

Personal Communications

APA style dictates that personal communications, including e-mail, and non-scholarly messages from discussion groups and mailing lists be cited in the text of the report rather than in the reference list. The following example demonstrates the appropriate format for this citation:

D. English (personal communication, June 22, 2004) stated that . . .

Any message you receive from a discussion group or mailing list that has scholarly value and has been archived, i.e., is retrievable, should be included in the reference list and cited as follows:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Day of posting). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from

        http://www.xxx

You can use the author's screen name if that is the only name available. 

Message posted to a Discussion Group

 

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Day of posting). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from

        http://www.xxx

No italicization is needed in this citation.

 

 

 

7D: APA Documentation of Library-based Electronic Resources

APA Documentation of Library-based Electronic Resources

The citation for a full-text article obtained from a library-based electronic database such as Academic Search Complete will be similar in format to a comparable one from a print source with some information added and some omitted. You should include as many of the following available elements as possible in the order listed.

  1. The author(s) last name and initials.
  2. The date of publication in parentheses. This date could be either a year, a year and month, or a year, month and day depending on the type of periodical. If no date is given, place (n.d.). right after the author's name (or title if there is no author).
  3. The title of the article with only the first word upper case (all other words, aside from proper nouns and the first word after a colon (:) must be lower case).
  4. The name of the periodical, italicized, followed by the volume number, also italicized. If an issue number is given it comes immediately after the volume number in parenthesis and NOT italicized. For example, you would cite volume 66, issue 3 of American Libraries as follows: American Libraries, 66(3).
  5. Pagination information, if available. More often than not, pagination will be listed with the bibliographic citation. If you retrieve the article in PDF format, the pages will appear exactly as they would in the print source, and you can find the original page numbers. If you can only retrieve the article in HTML text format, there will be no original page numbers.
  6. Include the digital object identifier (doi) if given. Never include a URL to an article in a database that limits access, if you have to sign into the database to see the article, it is not freely available online. Include a database name only if an article is very difficult to locate.
  7. The reference list is double-spaced, and every line after the first has a hanging indent, meaning all lines except the first one are indented from the left margin.

Periodical Articles

The following APA references are typical of the type of full-text periodical articles that can be found through library-based electronic databases available in Florida college libraries.The information in red is meant to show you the parts that make up the reference and should not be included in your own references.

No doi given:

Badke, W. (July-August, 2009). How we failed the net generation. Online, 33(4), 47-49.
(Author)     (Publication Date)    (Article Title)                  (Journal Name) (Issue, Volume, page numbers)

Doi given:

Whitlock, J., Eells, G., Cummings, N., & Purington, A. (2009, July-September). Nonsuicidal self-injury in college populations: Mental health provider assessment of
(Authors)                                                                  (Publication Date)               (Article Title)   

prevalence and need. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy 23(3), 172-183. doi: 10.1080/87568220902794366
                                    (Journal Name)                         (Volume, issue, page numbers) (doi)

In-text citation examples:

The following are common ways to construct in-text citations.

1) Placing the author and date in parentheses:

Studies are proving that violence in the media is becoming a larger issue for our children than it was for us (Potter & Smith, 2000).

2) Placing the author's name in the sentence and the date in parentheses:

Potter and Smith (2000) stated that studies are proving that violence in the media is becoming a larger issue for our children than it was for us.

3) Placing the author's name in the sentence and the date in parentheses. Notice for direct quotes, you must include the exact page number directly after the quote:

Potter and Smith (2000) stated that "violence on television is a crucial issue in America today (p. 323).

You could also structure the same above sentence this way:

"Violence on television is a crucial issue in America today" (Potter & Smith, 2000, p. 323).


Reference Sources

The citation for a full-text reference source from a library-based database such as Biography Resource Center will be similar in format to one from a print reference book with some information added. You should include as many of the following available elements as possible in the order listed.

  1. The author(s) last name and initials, if available.
  2. The date of publication in parentheses. This will usually be a single year.
  3. The title of the reference article.
  4. The title of the reference source, italicized, preceded by the word "In."
  5. The reference list is double-spaced. Each citation is formatted using a hanging indent, meaning all lines except the first one are indented from the left margin.

Reference Entry from a Library Database

Bob Marley. (2005). In Encyclopedia of world biography (Vol. 24). Retrieved from www.galegroup.com
(Title of entry) (Publication Year) (Title of Book)           (Volume)   (When retrieved from a database, give homepage url of database, leave out publisher information)

In-text citation examples:

1) Bob Marley was born February 6, 1945, in Saint Ann Parish ("Bob Marley," 2005).

2) "Bob Marley was born in the small village of Nine Mile in Saint Ann Parish" ("Bob Marley," 2005).


eBooks

The citation for an eBook obtained from a library-based electronic database such as netLibrary will be similar in format to a print book citation with some additional information added. You should include as many of the following available elements in the order listed.

  1. The author(s) last name and initials.
  2. The date of publication in parentheses.
  3. The book title, italicized. Note: If you use just one chapter from a book, include the title of the chapter, followed by the word "In" and then the editor's name. Then include the book title, italicized, followed by the page numbers in parentheses.
  4. A description of form enclosed in brackets. []
  5. Web information that includes the doi if one is given. When no doi is available give the homepage of the electronic book provider.
  6. The reference list is double-spaced. Each citation is formatted using a hanging indent, meaning all lines except the first one are indented from the left margin.

Chapter from an eBook

Sanchez, N., Kopp, C., & Sanzari, F. (2010). American unions: Robin Hoods or white-collar criminals? Destined for failure: American prosperity in the age of
(Authors)                                    (Publication Year)   (Chapter Title, when using only one chapter)                  (Book Title) 

bailouts [NetLibrary version], (pp. 85-99). Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com/
            (Description of Form) (Page Numbers) (Retrieval statement)

 In-text citation examples:

1) Discipline in school is an important issue to parents (Sanchez, Kopp, & Sanzari, 2010).

2) Sanchez, Kopp, and Sanzari (2010) stated that "labor unions, at least within the borders of the United States, are not innocent Robin Hoods" (p. 86).

3) Sanchez, Kopp, and Sanzari (2010) stated that American labor unions do not take from big business and give to unions or wage earners.