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LIS2004: Lesson Seven-MLA

Lesson Seven-MLA

7F: MLA Documentation of Library-based Electronic Resource

7E: MLA Documentation of Internet Resources

MLA Documentation of Internet Resources

The MLA citation for a document obtained over the Internet will be similar in format to a print document. Some information will be added and some omitted. Audio files, video files and graphic images have become increasingly available on the Internet and can be imported into electronic presentations/reports such as PowerPoint. These sites also need to be documented. You should include as many of the following available elements in the order given. For some sites, you may only have a title, date of access and address to cite.

1.      The author's name, last name first; or the corporate author, if available.

2.      The title of the Web page, in quotation marks if part of a website or the title of the website in italics if the entire site was used. Note: A Web page is defined as a single page of data within a website. Make sure to differentiate the two when citing them. Web pages must be placed in quotes; websites must be italicized.

3.      Publication information that might be available for a print or original version of the site, like the name of a periodical, italicized.

4.      The date of publication, if available.

5.      Pagination information. More often than not, this will not be available for websites. If the document numbers its paragraphs, cite the relevant numbers. For example: 16 pars.

6.      The name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the website, if available.

7.      The medium of publication (Web).

8.      The date you accessed the site, expressed as day month year.

9.      The Works Cited page is double-spaced. Each citation is formatted using a "hanging indent," meaning all lines except the first one are indented from the left margin.


Web Resources

The following examples illustrate how to create MLA citations for online resources.

All information in red is meant to offer explanation and should not be included in your own references.

American Psychological Association. "Violence on Television: What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?" APA Online. 2004. Web. 22 May 2008.
(Corporate Author)                         (Title of Webpage)                                               (Title of Website) (Date of Publication, Medium of Access, Date of Access)

 

In-text parenthetical documentation:   The following are common ways to construct in-text parenthetical documentation. Many electronic sources do not contain page numbers. In this case, you would use the abbreviation n. pag. (without the italics). If the paragraphs, lines, or stanzas are numbered, use this number in parenthetical citations. You may also indicate in the text of your writing where you found the information. For example, the last third of the article or under the heading xyz...

1.  Placing the author's name and page number in parentheses:

Studies are proving that violence in the media is becoming a larger issue for our children than it was for us (American Psychological Association, p. 15).

2.  Placing the author's name in the sentence and page/paragraph number in parentheses:

The American Psychological Association (p. 15) stated that studies are showing that violence in the media is becoming a larger issue for our children than it was for us.

3.  You can use a direct quote, placing the author's name in the sentence and the page/paragraph number in parentheses:

"Violence on television is a crucial issue in America today" (American Psychological Association, p. 15).


Images, Audiovisual and Graphical Resources

The following MLA reference is to a typical image that might be used in a PowerPoint presentation or as a visual aid in a speech. The MLA has not issued an official format to follow for Internet audiovisual sources; this example is as similar as possible to the original source format with the addition of the Internet information. For more specific information, consult the MLA Handbook of Writers of Research Papers, seventh edition, or talk to a librarian.

Aubrey, Charles. Still Life with Dahlias. 1864. Philadelphia Museum of Art. Web. 4 Mar. 2011.
(Author)        (Title of artwork)             (Year Made) (Name of Website)    (Medium of Access) (Date of Access)

 

In-text parenthetical documentation:

The following is an example of in-text parenthetical documentation for the above corresponding citation:

Regardless of gender, the likelihood of violent behavior as an adult has been shown to be greater for people who were heavy television viewers as children (U-M Institute for Social Research).


Personal Communications

Personal communications, including e-mail and postings to blogs, are listed in the Works Cited list. Use the following formats:

E-mail Message

DeLisle, Judi. "MLA Documentation." Message to Denise English and Christal Wood. 16 June 2009. E-mail.
 

Message Posted to a Blog

Grohol, John M. "Surprise TV Violence isn't Portrayed Accurately." World of Psychology Blog. PsychCentral. 20 May 2009. Web 4 June 2009.

 

7F: MLA Documentation of Library-based Electronic Resource

MLA Documentation of Library-based Electronic Resource

The citation for a full-text periodical article obtained from such library-based electronic databases as Academic Search Complete will be similar in format to a comparable one from a print source with some information added and some omitted. You should include as many of the following elements in the order listed. For further documentation consult the seventh edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers or ask a librarian. Note: The seventh edition of the MLA Handbook does not require a URL unless finding the article would be very difficult without it, or your instructor requires one.

1. The author's name, last name first; or the corporate author, if available.

2. The title of the article in quotation marks.

3. The name of the periodical, italicized.

4. Depending on the type of periodical, the date or volume number or date only of the periodical.

5. Inclusive pages, if given. The example given includes pagination.

6. The name of the database, in italics.

7. The medium use to access the database, such as Web.

8. The date you accessed the site expressed as day month year.

9. The Works Cited list is double-spaced. Each citation is formatted using a hanging indent, meaning all lines except the first one are indented from the left margin.


Periodical Articles

The following MLA reference is typical of the type of full-text periodical article on television violence that can be found through library-based electronic databases available in many Florida community college libraries.

Periodical Article from a Library Database

Potter, W. James and Stacy Smith. "The Context of Graphic Portrayals of Television Violence." Journal of Broadcast & Electronic Media 44(Spring 2000): 301-323.
(Authors (1st name inverted, the rest are not)) (Article Title)                                                     (Journal Name)         (Volume, Publication Date, Page Numbers)

Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 17 June 2009.
(Database Name)           (Medium of Access) (Date of Access)

In-text parenthetical documentation:

 

The following are common ways to construct in-text parenthetical documentation.

1) Documenting a direct quote, placing the author's name in parentheses:

"Native American writers had a profound effect on American Literature" (Beidler).

2) Documenting a direct quote, using the author's name in the sentence:

Beidler stated that "Native American writers had a profound effect on American Literature."

3) Paraphrasing a quote, placing the author's name in parentheses:

American Literature was greatly influenced by Native American writers. (Beidler).


eBooks

The citation for an ebook obtained from a library-based electronic database such as netLibrary will be similar in format to a print book citation with some additional elements added. Include as many of the following available elements in the order listed.

1.      The author(s) last name followed by the first name.

2.      The title of the book, in italics. If you use just one chapter from a book, include that, in quotation marks, before the title. After the title of the book, include the editor(s).

3.      The place of publication, publisher and date. If you use just one chapter from a book, include the pages of the chapter after the date of publication.  If the page information is not available, use N. pag.

4.      The title of the database, in italics.

5.      The medium of publication (Web.)

6.      The date you accessed the site expressed as date, month, year.

7.      The Works Cited list is double-spaced. Each citation is formatted using a hanging indent, meaning all lines except the first one are indented from the left margin.

 

 
Chapter from an eBook

McCadden, Brian M. "Why is Michael Always Getting Timed Out? Race, Class, and Disciplining of Other People's Children." Classroom Discipline in American
(Author)                                     (Chapter Title)                                                                                                                (Name of Book) 

Schools: Problems and Possibilities for Democratic Education. Ed. Ronald E. Butchart and Barbara McEwan. Albany: State University of New York Press,
                                                                                                   (Editors, when listed)                                        (Publisher)

1998. 109-131. NetLibrary. Web. 9 May 2009.
(Publication Year, Page Numbers, Database, Medium of Access, and Date of Access)

 

In-text parenthetical documentation:

1) "Engaging in open dialogue with kindergarteners poses management and disciplinary threats " (McCadden 130).

2) McCadden indicated that "engaging in open dialogue with kindergarteners poses management and disciplinary threats" (130).

3) Open discussions with kindergarteners may present authority-related challenges in the classroom (McCadden 130).

 

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Copyright © 1997-2009 Florida Community College, Learning Resources Standing Committee. Last revised May 2009 by the LIS 2004 Course Revision Committee.