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LIS1000: Module 4

Lesson 1

Module 4, Lesson 1

Module 4, Lesson 1

The information literate student accesses and uses information ethically and legally. (Standard 4)

  • Accesses information ethically and legally. (Performance Indicator 1)
    • Recognizes and adheres to the privacy and security policies and procedures at their respective institutions. (FL College Outcome 1.1B)

Lesson Objectives
On completion of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define the need for Information Technology Use Policies
  • Outline general policy guidelines at their institution.
  • Outline general consequences of policy violations at their institution.

Lesson Content

Information technology is part of our daily lives. From our smart phones, tablets, laptops, to the humble desktop PC, much of our personal lives and academic pursuits rely on this technology. As our dependence on these resources for academic purposes increases, so does the necessity to protect both the data and the systems that support our seamless access to these essential resources. Our academic information technology systems must not only be secure but readily available to users.

It is the task of your Information Technology (IT) department to manage these critical and sensitive resources. In order to ensure access and security your institution has established written policies and procedures to 1) ensure compliance with laws and regulations 2) outline acceptable uses that allow equitable access for all users 3) inform users of their personal responsibilities when using college provided technologies.

It is YOUR responsibility to understand and comply with the acceptable technology use policyadopted and published by your college. The details of these policies will vary depending on your institution and their resources.

However, most policies will generally regulate the following:

  • unauthorized users
  • disclosure of authorized passwords or user accounts
  • use of college technology for commercial purposes
  • activity that threatens, harasses or is abusive to others
  • downloading, installing or running unauthorized software
  • access or storage of legally defined obscene materials
  • activity that violates copyright law and/or license agreements
  • email chain letters or spam
  • any attempt to defeat established security measures
  • accessing files, data or information belonging to others
  • any illegal activity
  • activity that abuses the equitable availability of bandwidth or other limited resources

Violations of your institutions approved policies may result in disciplinary actions which can include suspension or expulsion in the case of a student. Additionally, individuals may be subject to the loss of information resources access privileges, civil and/or criminal prosecution.


Activity

Signed statement of intent to comply with written institutional policies.

Review Indian River State College's Technology Use policy, sign and date the following statement.

 

I ______________________________________________ have read and understand the Indian River State College Technology Acceptable Use Policy and agree to abide by all regulations stated therein.

Signed

Date

 

Lesson 2

Module 4, Lesson 2

Module 4, Lesson 2

The information literate student accesses and uses information ethically and legally. (Standard 4)

  • Uses information ethically and legally(Performance Indicator 2)
    • Demonstrates an understanding of intellectual property to avoid plagiarism (FL College Outcome 4.2A)

Lesson Objectives
On completion of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Recognize plagiarism
  • Recognize properly cited direct quotes, paraphrasing, and summarizing

Lesson Content

See <mod4_less2.pptx>


Activity

The following passage and examples have been taken from Teaching Information Literacy by Joanna M. Burkhardt & Mary C. MacDonald. 2nd Ed. 2010.

Determine if the selections are examples of plagiarism and explain why or why not.

Original Quotation:

Library literature offers wide-spectrum coverage on planning and moving libraries. Authors offer visions of what might be, practical implementation suggestions, or explicit instructions for specific situations. Every move is different and offers its own set of challenges. Planning and moving into a new library can be a nightmare with long-range challenges, or a sweet dream of perfect coordination and timing.1

Selection 1
Library literature offers wide-spectrum coverage on planning and moving libraries. Authors offer visions of what might be, practical implementation suggestions, or explicit instructions for specific situations. Every move is different and offers its own set of challenges. Planning and moving into a new library can be a nightmare with long-range challenges, or a sweet dream of perfect coordination and timing.

Selection 2
Library literature offers wide-spectrum coverage on planning and moving libraries. Authors offer visions of what might be, practical implementation suggestions, or explicit instructions for specific situations. Every move is different and offers its own set of challenges. Planning and moving into a new library can be a nightmare with long-range challenges, or a sweet dream of perfect coordination and timing. (Burkhardt, 1998)

Selection 3
“Library literature offers wide-spectrum coverage on planning and moving libraries. Authors offer visions of what might be, practical implementation suggestions, or explicit instructions for specific situations. Every move is different and offers its own set of challenges. Planning and moving into a new library can be a nightmare with long-range challenges, or a sweet dream of perfect coordination and timing.” (Burkhardt, 1998)

Selection 4
Library literature offers much information on planning and moving libraries. Authors offer their thoughts on what might be, practical implementation suggestions, or explicit instructions for specific situations. Every move is different and offers its own set of challenges. Planning and moving into a new library can be a nightmare or a sweet dream of perfect coordination and timing. (Burkhardt, 1998)

Selection 5
“Library literature offers much information on planning and moving libraries. Authors offer their thoughts on what might be, practical implementation suggestions, or explicit instructions for specific situations. Every move is different and offers its own set of challenges. Planning and moving into a new library can be a nightmare or a sweet dream of perfect coordination and timing.” (Burkhardt, 1998)

Selection 6
In the literature about libraries there are plenty of articles on planning moving libraries. Writers of these articles offer futuristic, practical, or explicit instructions for moving libraries. Planning and moving a library can be a nightmare or a good dream. (Burkhardt, 1998)

Selection 7
Moving into a new library takes much planning and forethought. The literature is full of article of practical and theoretical advice regarding this topic. Each situation is different and must be handled according to the specifics of the location. Creating a new library may be very easy or very hard. (Burkhardt, 1998)

1Joanna M. Burkhardt, “Do’s and Don’ts for Moving a Small Academic Library,” College and Research Libraries News 59, no. 7 (July/August 1998): 499.

 

Lesson 3

Module 4, Lesson 3

Module 4, Lesson 3

The information literate student accesses and uses information ethically and legally. (Standard 4)

  • Uses information ethically and legally (Performance Indicator 2)
    • Demonstrates an understanding of copyright and distinguishes between misuse and fair use when given examples (FL College Outcome 4.2B)

Lesson Objectives
On completion of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Determine if a use of materials is fair use or misuse.

Lesson Content

What is Copyright?
Copyright is the protection provided by Title 17 of the United States Code that gives the creator of an original work the exclusive rights to control its distribution. What does that mean to you? If you find a work that is copyright protected and you use it in any way that violates the copyright holder’s protections then you are committing a federal crime.

Let’s look at the language of the law and explain it more fully.

“An original work of authorship that is fixed in a tangible medium of expression.” The word ‘original’ is key in understanding copyright protections. In order for a work to be original, the creator had to use some measure of creativity.  Taking a photograph of a sculpture may or may not be considered original. The photograph is fixed in a tangible medium, but depending on the photographer’s creativity in making the photograph the photograph may or may not have its own copyright protection. If the photographer used a particular lens, changed the lighting on the sculpture, and changed the angle of the shot so the photograph of the sculpture can be called a creative piece of work; if it’s original enough the photograph may receive its own copyright protection. If however, the photographer walks up and takes a straight on shot of a sculpture, there is no originality in the photograph and the photograph lacks its own copyright protection.

What Types of Works are Protected?
Just about anything you can think of that is fixed and original. Music, art, literary works, websites, architecture, dance, software are ALL protected by copyright. You do not need to see the © to know that a work is protected! Illegal use of copyright material is a federal crime enforced by the FBI.

The FBI Cyber Division mandates copyright warnings and logos. The following warning is provided by them for anyone to use for copyrighted works. Their warning seal however cannot be reproduced here.
"Warning: The unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this copyrighted work is illegal. Criminal copyright infringement, including infringement without monetary gain, is investigated by the FBI and is punishable by up to five years in federal prison and a fine of $250,000."

You do not need to make money off the copyright infringement in order to be in violation of the law.

What Is Not Protected Under Copyright?

  • Ideas themselves (unrecorded oral expression), which are not in a FIXED medium
  • Facts (compilations of facts might be protected), depending on the originality of compilation. The phone book is not copyright protected, but if you make a new phone book with yellow pages and organized by subject, then you may have enough creativity to get copyright protection.
  • U.S. Government Documents are not protected, so why can’t I reproduce the FBI warning seal? The warning under the warning seal cites a different code of the law. “A last word to the wise: Unauthorized use of the FBI seal, name, and initials are subject to prosecution under Federal Criminal law, including Sections 701, 709, and 712 of Title 18 of the United States Code.” The reproduction of the seal would constitute fraud according to the FBI. In other words it is NOT copyright protected, but the FBI considers anyone reproducing it where it should not be as impersonating a federal agency. Wikipedia and the FBI are in a legal battle over this issue.

Why is Copyright Needed?
What’s the big deal with using other people’s works? Copyright was created in order to encourage people to share knowledge with others. If no one protects other people’s research/writings/artwork/music, would people share these with others? What would be the monetary benefit of producing a book that could be copied a million times with no compensation to the author? How would you feel if you created an original piece of artwork that is used in a national advertisement campaign for a company you hate? Copyright expires after 70 years, thus ensuring that knowledge becomes part of the public domain. Copyright protection is a way to encourage knowledge creation and knowledge sharing rather than limiting the free flow of ideas. Copyright automatically protects original, fixed works from the time it is created until 70 years after the creator’s death.

Is it still protected by copyright? You can check by using this site: http://librarycopyright.net/digitalslider/

Digital Millennium Copyright Act
The law has increased copyright protections in recent years due to the ease of reproducing and distributing copyrighted works. President Clinton signed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) in 1998 to keep pace with the digital environment in which we live. If you can, imagine a time before digital music when people recorded music off the radio, which often resulted in poor playback or the radio announcer talking over the music, etc. Today we have peer -to-peer networks, digital sound, movies, and the Internet, which allows us to distribute mass amounts of copyrighted material to users worldwide, in seconds, in great quality. The DMCA furthered the reach of copyright infringement to make it illegal for users or distributers to disable digital rights management systems in order to illegally copy or distribute material electronically. When you record poor quality music onto a cassette tape you are probably not going to affect the purchasing power of that song. When you distribute digital quality movies nationwide before the theatrical release, you will affect the purchasing power of the motion picture.

What Is Fair Use?
So I can never use copyrighted materials ever again and everything is copyrighted, right? WRONG!

There is fair use. Fair use is what you use when you incorporate an author’s ideas into a research paper and then cite the author. Copyrighted material can be used for research, educational purposes, criticism, parody, or commentary. You need to give credit to the creator in order not to plagiarize, but you may use it if it does not substantially affect the market value of the work and your work does not contain only the copyrighted material. In other words, you should not copy and paste an entire article written by another person, give them credit, and call it your research. Fair use is tricky to differentiate even for professionals. 
Fair Use Examples on YouTube

The other thing to remember when you want to reuse a copyrighted work is that the creator does have the right to give you permission to reuse the work. So you can always ask the copyright owner if it is okay to use the work.

Creative Commons Licensing & Future of Copyright
Today copyright holders are given more freedom in assigning differing levels of copyright to their works. Instead of the “all or nothing” that is copyright, there are sites that specialize in copyright free-material or the mutual sharing of text, images, music, movies, and software. The Internet abounds with copyright free images, music, videos, and text. Creators may assign what is called a Creative Commons license to their work.  You may use a website that abides by Creative Commons licenses, such as flickr. There are different levels of Creative Commons licensing available allowing the creator more freedom in explaining to others what he or she intended the original work to do or be.

Creative Commons YouTube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=io3BrAQl3so


Activity

Students discuss their feelings about copyright protection based on these YouTube videos.

  1. The questions below are just ideas for a conversation about copyright, respond to any one that interests you or bring up your own idea. Copyright infringement is the unauthorized reproduction or prohibited use of a creative work (book, music, video, art, etc.). Copyright holders have the exclusive rights to their creative materials and can enforce their rights as they see fit. Lawrence Lessig, a law professor from Harvard University, has strived to lessen the restrictions placed on creative works through advocacy. This is a clip of his talk given at the New York Public Library on how copyright might stifle creativity. Please watch the clip here: http://youtu.be/JXwB9FlkNXA Then comment about whether or not you believe a copyright holder (an artist, writer, musician, etc.) should retain the right to insist his or her creation not be used in a way he or she does not intend (as in the case with the musician in the baby Holden video). Do you believe copyright laws stifle creativity? Do you think exceptions should be made for people who do not profit off the reproduction of a copyright work? What about people who post entire television shows on YouTube, doesn’t this detract from income to the cable companies, the networks, the actors? How are these YouTube derivatives creative? Do we need to be more careful with copyright since we can store, send, and retrieve items electronically? Doesn’t the electronic age make it easier and far more destructive when entire movies are pirated?
  2. The song “Acidjazzed Evening” by Janne Suni was first introduced in Finland in 2000. The song was remixed by a Norwegian composer with permission from Suni and added to the playlist for the Commodore 64 in 2002. The song was released as a ringtone called “Block Party” by Timbaland in 2005. The Commodore 64 version of the song was shown to be the one released by Nelly Furtado for a song called “Do It” on her album titled Loose. Neither Timbaland nor Furtado credited Suni with the original beat. Listen here http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIEijimuzr8&feature=youtu.be Then listen to Timbaland’s response to Suni’s lawsuit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTvY3wZrHrQ&feature=youtu.be

What do you think?


External Resources